A low-pressure area surrounded by high-pressure wind is called a cyclone. Cyclones rotate anticlockwise in the Northern hemisphere and clockwise in the Southern hemisphere.
Cyclones are the most intense storms on Earth. Tropical cyclones are characterised by devastating winds, storm surges and torrential downpours, which may cause flooding.
Wind speed may reach up to \(200 \)km/h, and rainfall may record up to \(50 \)cm/day for several consecutive days.
A sudden rise of seawater due to a tropical cyclone is called a storm surge.
It is frequently experienced in the regions of shallow coastal water. East coastal areas are vulnerable to storm surges
- North Odisha and West Bengal coasts
- Andhra Pradesh coast between Ongole and Machilipatnam
- Tamil Nadu coast (among 13 coastal districts, Nagapattinam and Cuddalore districts are frequently affected)
West coastal areas are prone to storm surges.
The west coast of India is less vulnerable to storm surges than the east coast.
- Maharashtra coast, north of Harnai and adjoining South Gujarat coast and the coastal belt around the Gulf of Cambay.
- The coastal belt around the Gulf of Kutch.