The process of removal of topsoil either naturally or by human activities is called soil erosion. Naturally erosion of the soil is done mainly by running water and water. It is a slow process and the majority of the time goes unnoticed. But the destruction of soil structure caused by human activity accounts for the removal of soil to a large extent. This type of accelerated soil erosion results in the declination of fertility of soil.
The protection of soil deterioration of quality and quantity is called soil conservation. It can be done through various ways such as preventing deforestation, controlled grazing, dam construction, contour farming, crop rotation, strip farming, cover cropping, reducing shifting cultivation etc.
Uses of Soil
Soil is the most important natural resource on the earth which provides a base for the existence of life on the earth.
- It provides necessary nutrients for the plant growth.
- It purifies the water and allows the water to infiltrate into the aquifer.
- It provides the materials for construction purposes.
- It is the habitat for all the living organisms and maintains the gene pool.
- It prevents floods and regulates water flow.
Rocks and soil are the two important natural resources essential for survival on the earth. The minerals found in the rocks helps in the development of the economy. The conservation of soil quality is the need of the hour, in order to provide food and shelter to the growing population.