The Bombay Under Portuguese:
The territory of Bombay was a group of Seven Islands when it was under the control of the Portuguese. They were reigning the area from \(1534\) and named the place “Bombaim”.
The Salsette and Bassein territories of Bombay were used as Urban Centres by the Portuguese, while the Other Islets were small fishing villages.
Bombay as “Dowry”:
The Territory of Bombay was ceded as Dowry by the Portuguese king to the England Prince Charles II when he married his sister in \(1661\). Thus Bombay was ceded to the British as a gift of the Matrimonial Alliance.
The King of Britain ceded the territory to the British East India Company for a profitable lease. Thus the BEIC became the true owners of the Island Province.
The Shift from Surat to Bombay:
1. Surat is the Place where the British established their First trading centre in India. Post the Rise of the Maratha Ruler Shivaji, the Port of Surat underwent a serious problem as it was subjected to plunder.
Bombay Under British
2. The Bombay province was a natural choice for the British company as it had the facility of the harbour which was later changed as a centre of maritime trade.
3. Thus Bombay became the Commercial capital of the BEIC, and the Western Port aided the International trade of the company.
4. The Headquarters of the BEIC was shifted from Surat and Bombay in \(1687\).
The Presidency of Calcutta:
The Hooghly river was considered the power centre of the Bengal province by the foreign and native rulers. The British managed to acquire the Zamindari rights of the Hooghly river and its surrounding three fishing villages in \(1698\).
Sutanuti: This was considered as the important village on the banks of river Hooghly which was taken by the British.
The British began to fortify this region as it had rebellions and invasions around the Presidency. They slowly began to Urbanize the Settlements they made the Presidency of Calcutta as the Seat of the BEIC.
Fort William was established in Calcutta which served as a symbol of the dominance of the East India Company. The British also went on to establish the First Post Office, High Court and Electric Light in Calcutta.
Calcutta: ABIR ROY BARMAN / Shutterstock.com