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These extensive lowlands with the polar climate and vegetation are found mainly north of the Arctic Circle in the Northern hemisphere Greenland, Northern parts of Asia, Canada and Europe. These regions are also called Barren lands.

The climate is characterised by a very low mean annual temperature. Only a few months have temperatures above freezing point. The ground always remains frozen. Winters are long and very severe; summers are short and cool. Due to the prevailing low temperature and short growing seasons, the tundra's net primary productivity is low. Precipitation is mainly in the form of snow.

Human activities are mainly confined to coastal regions. Few nomadic and semi-nomadic people who live here have adapted themselves to the harsh conditions. Hunting and fishing are
their major occupations. The population here is extremely sparse, and the harsh environment makes them change their settlement frequently. They live in an igloo in winter and in tents during summer.
Flora: Arctic moss, Arctic willow, lichens etc.
Fauna: Polar bear, wolverine, reindeer, snowy owl