Employment Structure in India
In India, the nature of employment is multi-dimensional i.e, some get employment throughout the year; some others get employed for only a few months in a year.
The economy is classified into three sectors: Primary or agriculture sector, Secondary or industrial sector and Tertiary or service sector.
The structure of employment denotes the number of workers engaged in different sectors of the economy. This occupational pattern varies from one country to another.
In developing countries like India, a large workforce will be engaged in the primary sector, while a small proportion in secondary and tertiary sectors. Whereas, in well-developed countries like the USA, the proportion of workforce engaged in agriculture will be very small, and a majority of the work force will be in the industrial and tertiary sectors.
Employment has always featured as an important element of development policy in India.
Employment growth has increased at an average rate of 2% during the past four decades since 1972–73.
In the medieval period, Feroz Shah Thuglaq, the Sultan of Delhi had set up an ‘Employment Bureau’ to solve the unemployment problem.
Types of Employment: Organised and Unorganised sectors
The organised sector is incorporated with the appropriate authority or government and follows proper rules and regulations. In short, organised sectors are deliberately planned, designed and duly sanctioned by the competent authority.
The organised sector has some formal processes and procedures. The employees in this sector are provided with job security and receive higher wages than those of the unorganised sectors.
The organised sector provides benefits like a good salary, fixed working hours, paid holidays, medical allowance and insurance.
In India, employees of central and state governments, industries and private companies comes under the organised sector.
The unorganised sector of the economy is characterised by household manufacturing activity and small-scale industry.
Jobs here are low paid and often not regular. They do not have paid leave, holiday, sickleaves, and employment is also not secure. The employee of unorganised sector do not enjoy any special benefits or job security. These enterprises are not registered with the government.
People who are employed on their own doing small jobs such as street vendors, doing repair work(plumber, mechanic), etc.