LEARNATHON
III

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### Theory:

Democracy in Athenia
The Democratic system of Greece empowered the people to be part of the policymaking. This was the first instance where the common citizens of Athens were treated on par with the elites in deciding the fate of the country.

Male citizens of Athens were given the freedom to express their views, and political rights were bestowed on them by the principles of Democracy.
Voting: The Athenian democracy followed the process of voting by rising the hands of the participants when a policy or a law has been discussed, the majority is taken into account and thus they arrived at decisions.
The democratic developments that took place in Athens were not liked by the elite class of people who considered the system as a bulwark against the concentration of power.

Women, slaves and other residing foreigners were not allowed to take part in the process of framing policies.

The Rule of Pericles:

Pericles was the ruler of Athens who ruled the country for a brief period. The culture of Athens flourished under his leadership who ruled from $$\text{461 BC}$$ to $$\text{429 BC}$$. He was an able military general, politician and orator.

Pericles the Ruler

Thucydides, a contemporary historian, hailed Pericles as the “First Citizen of Democratic Athens”.
During his rule, he fought many battles against his adversaries and prosecuted people betraying Athens.

The Peloponnesian Wars :

1. The Rise of Athens under Pericles gave a feeling of insecurity among the people and the rulers of Sparta. They started to demand more rights which culminated in a full-blown war.

2. Pericles using his Naval power, rattled the forces of Sparta and defeated them convincingly. Though he won the battle, the threat of Sparta invasion was always imminent during his rule.

3. The city of Athens was hit by Plague during his rule, which was not handled properly by the ruler. Later the ruler himself succumbed to the disease and died.

Pericles and arts:

Pericles, the ruler, was a great patron of arts and literature. He was keenly interested in having discussions with various writers during his reign. He also built towering structures that showed the legacy of Athens, and hence his period was also called the “Golden age of Athens”.

Socrates
Socrates: He was one of the greatest philosophers who lived during the period of Pericles. The art of questioning was the principle theory of Socrates.
SOCRATES AND THE HEMLOCK
The art of questioning developed by the Socrates shaped the young minds of Athens. Socrates questioned the forces of Athens, which failed to defend its territories against the Spartans. He was seen as an enemy by the people holding power. Later during an instance, he was accused of denying the existence of gods and corrupting the young minds of Athens.

He was asked to leave the state, which he refused, so he was made to drink the Poison made of “Hemlock” – a Eurasian plant.