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Theory:

 Punctuation marks are symbols used to organise and structure sentences. The term “punctuation” is derived from the Latin word “punctum”. They are used for understanding a sentence correctly. Punctuation is used to bring clarity and meaning in writing.
The most common punctuation marks in English are capital letters, full stops, question marks, commas, brackets, exclamation marks and quotation marks.
Let's see about some of the punctuation marks and its examples:
Capital Letter: A capital letter (A,B,C) is used while starting a sentence, for proper nouns, and in title cases.
Example:
1. The book is written by Albert Einstein.
2. Kala, Raju, Rekha
Full stop: A full stop (.) is used at the end of a sentence. While using the full stop in a sentence, it denotes that the sentences had given complete meaning. The full stop is otherwise called a period.
Example:
1. Sheela went to the park yesterday.
2. Ramesh likes to eat chocolates.
Question mark: A question mark (?) is a punctuation mark that indicates an interrogative clause or phrase in many languages. The question can be a short word or a whole sentence. When we use a question mark, we do not use a full stop.
Example:
1. What is your name?
2. How old are you?
Exclamation mark: An exclamation mark (!) is used to express a strong emotion or feeling.
Example:
1. We won!
2. It’s a boy!
3. I’m going to miss this place!
Comma: A comma (,) is used to separate a list of similar words or phrases.
Example:
1. There are apples, oranges, and bananas in the basket.
2.Wordsworth, the famous English poet, was a lover of nature
Quotation mark: Quotation marks (double ["] or single [']) are used to mark the beginning and end of a title or quoted passage. They are also used in direct speech.
Example:
1. The king shouted, Let the games begin!
2. My favourite novel of all time is Anne Rice’s Interview with the Vampire.
Bracket: Brackets ( ) are used in a sentence to give some additional information.
Example:
1. The anklets (which had been in my family for years) was stolen.
Hyphen: A hyphen is a short line ( - ) used to connect the parts of a compound word or to connect split words such as numbers (twenty-nine) and job titles (vice-president). Also it used to join words to indicate that they have a combined meaning.
Example:
1. book-keeper
2. ice-cream
Colon: A colon (:) is two equally sized dots placed one above the other on the same vertical line. It is used to give emphasis, present dialogue, and introduce lists or text.
Example:
1. Rabi was so hungry that she ate everything on the table: chips, biscuits, samosas, cutlets, and a jar of coffee.
2. Sam had a rough day: he forgot his homework and got scolding from his teacher.
Semi-colon: A semi-colon (;) connects two clauses (sentences) with a pause, where both the
sentences are given equal importance.
Example:
1. 'She loves to jump around when she is happy; it makes her feel free and crazy.'
2. He ran down the hall to meet his mother; he was elated.
Em-dash: The em dash (—) is used instead of brackets, commas, colons, or quotation marks in a sentence. Also, it is used to mark a sharp turn in thought.
Example:
1. Would you care to—oh, forget it.
2. English, Maths, French—the homework is done, and I deserve a rest.
 
Some of the punctuation marks used in the lesson "Kathmandu" are:
 
S.No
Sentence
Punctuation marks
1
At the Baudhnath stupa, the Buddhist shrine of Kathmandu.Capital letters (A, B, B, K) and comma (,)
2
At Pashupatinath (outside which a sign proclaims ‘Entrance for the Hindus only’) there is an atmosphere of ‘febrile confusion’. Capital letters (A, P, E, H), brackets (), Period (.) and single quotation marks (').
3
By the main gate, a party of saffron-clad Westerners struggle for permission to enter. Comma (,), Period (.) and Capital letter (B, W)
4
Kathmandu is vivid, mercenary, religious, with small shrines to flower-adorned deities along the narrowest and busiest streets; with fruit sellers, flute sellers, hawkers of postcards; shops selling Western cosmetics, film rolls and chocolate; or copper utensils and Nepalese antiques.Capital letters (K, W, N), Hyphen (- ), Comma (,), Semi-colon (;) and  Period (.)
5
Go home, I tell myself: move directly towards home.Capital letters (K, W, N), Comma (,), Colon (:) and Period (.) 
6
There is no culture that does not have its flute—the reed neh, the recorder, the Japanese shakuhachi, the deep bansuri of Hindustani classical music, the clear or breathy flutes of South America, the high-pitched Chinese flutes.
Capital Letters (T, J, H, S A, C), Comma (,), Em-dash (—) and Period (.) 
7
They are of bamboo: there are cross-flutes and recorders.Capital letters (T), Hyphen (- ), Colon (:) and Period (.)