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 A phrase is a group of words that are together as a single unit. It can appear as a part of a clause or a sentence.
A phrase does not contain a subject and verb and, so it cannot make a complete sentence. A phrase is not like a clause. A clause does contain a subject and a verb, and it can make a complete sentence.
1. As soon as you got in, he went out.
(As soon as is a conjunctional phrase.)

2. Popcorn popping, the dog was ready for the film.
Popcorn popping” modifies the clause “the dog was ready for the film.”

3. The entire rugby team, their uniforms muddy and stained, shouted in joy.
A phrase will have more than one word. Hence, the words like homesick, thoughtless, and such are not phrases. They are simply words. Although the word "homesick" is a combination of two words-- home and sick--it is still not a phrase.
Examples of phrases from the lesson "Kathmandu":  
  1. I get a cheap room in the centre of town and sleep for hours.
  2. I get a cheap room in the centre of town and sleep for hours.
  3. I get a cheap roomin the centre of townand sleep for hours.
  4. There is an atmosphere of ‘febrile confusion.  
  5. Some people trying to get the priest’s attention are elbowed aside.  
  6. Everyone bows and makes way.
  7. A party of saffron-clad Westerners struggle for permission to enter.
  8. One chases the other, who jumps onto a shivalinga, then runs around the temples.
  9. Washerwomen are at their work.
  10. Film songs blare out from the radios.
  11. From time to time he stands the pole on the ground.
  12. I have returned home after a long absence abroad.