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Theory:

     “Thank Heaven! That’s fine! I am delighted for your sake. I am very, very glad, Lushkoff. You see, you are my godson, in a sense. I gave you a push along the right path, you know. Do you remember what a roasting I gave you, eh? I nearly had you sinking into the ground at my feet that day. Thank you, old man, for not forgetting my words.”

     “Thank you, too.” said Lushkoff. “If I hadn’t come to you then I might still have been calling myself a teacher or a student to this day. Yes, by flying to your protection I dragged myself out of a pit.”

     “I am very glad, indeed.”

     “Thank you for your  kind words and deeds. I am very grateful to you and to your cook. God bless that good and noble woman! You spoke finely then, and I shall be indebted to you to my dying day; but, strictly speaking, it was your cook, Olga, who saved me.”

     “How is that?”
 
     “When I used to come to your house to chop wood she used to begin: ‘Oh, you sot, you! Oh, you miserable creature! There’s nothing for you but ruin.’ And then she would sit down opposite me and grow sad, look into my face and weep. ‘Oh, you unlucky man! There is no pleasure for you in this world and there will be none in the world to come. You drunkard! You will burn in hell. Oh, you unhappy one!’ And so she would carry on, you know, in that strain. I can’t tell you how much misery she suffered, how many tears she shed for my sake. But the chief thing was — she used to chop the wood for me. Do you know, sir, that I did not chop one single stick of wood for you? She did it all. Why this saved me, why I changed, why I stopped drinking at the sight of her I cannot explain. I only know that, owing to her words and noble deeds, a change took place in my heart; she set me right and I shall never forget it. However, it is time to go now; there goes the bell.” Lushkoff bowed and departed to the gallery.
Explanation:
 
Sergei expressed his gratitude to God for helping the beggar. He claimed that he considered Lushkoff to be his godson because he had changed due to his scolding. The beggar had been at his feet that day, begging for mercy. Mr Sergei was relieved that Lushkoff remembered his words.

Lushkoff thanked him and stated that he would still be lying and begging if he hadn't met Sergei that day. Sergei helped him out of the pit, and he was grateful for his assistance. Sergei was appreciated for his kindness. He expressed his gratitude to the cook. She was a lady of honour. Despite Sergei's kindness, Olga was the one who saved and rehabilitated him.

Then Mr Sergei asked him the reason behind his statement. Lushkoff said that Olga would scold him whenever he went to the place to chop wood. She would sit opposite to him and cry because she was sad for him. She would say that he was a miserable person and could never get out of trouble. She would say that if he continued drinking, he would always remain a poor person. Also, she would say that he was an unlucky person and would be burnt in hell.

Lushkoff said that the main thing was that she had chopped all the wood for him. Then he said that he did not know why he was changed or why he stopped drinking. All he knew was that her actions had an impact on him. He said that Olga had put him in the right direction. Moreover, Lushkoff said that he would not forget the lady because she had changed his life. While Mr Sergei and Lushkoff were conversing with each other, the bell rang. Later, Lushkoff bent before him as a mark of respect and went to the theatre's gallery.
 
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Olga chopping wood on behalf of Lushkoff

From the above statement, one can understand the kindness of the old lady. Even though she understood that the man could not do his work, Olga helped him finish his work. Also, her words and kindness towards him had made him work hard and get rid of his drinking habit. Through this story, the writer conveys that Mr Sergei had given the platform for Lushkoff's living. But Olga was the one who made him become a better person. Her words and good deeds brought a change in Lushkoff's life.
 
Meanings of the difficult words:
 
S.No
Words
Meanings
1
Roasting A severe criticism or reprimand
2
Misery A state or feeling of great physical or mental distress or discomfort
3
RuinTo spoil or destroy something completely
4
Bowed Bent over
5
Indebted Owing money
Reference:
National Council of Educational Research and Training (2006). Moments. The Beggar – Anton Chekhov (pp. 62-68). Published at the Publication Division by the Secretary, National Council of Educational Research and Training, Sri Aurobindo Marg, New Delhi.