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Theory:

     I asked Aditya whether everything was still the same. He replied that everything had changed.
 
     ‘Our school used to be one-storeyed, and a new building has come up, which wasn’t there.’
 
     ‘Were you not a good student?’ I asked.
 
     ‘Yes, but my position was always second,’ he replied. We decided to go and have tea at Nagen uncle’s tea shop, which stood next to a grocery shop and opposite a temple dedicated to Lord Shiva. Soon, we caught sight of ‘Nagen’s Tea Cabin’ written on a signboard over the shop.
 
     The owner of the tea shop, now over sixty, a little rustic in appearance, with his white neatly-combed hair and clean look, was the same as before. He was wearing a dhoti and a blue striped shirt that could be seen from under a green shawl.
Explanation:
 
While standing in front of the iron gate, the narrator asks Aditya if everything is still the same. The phrase "everything was still the same" in this context refers to the narrator asking him if the school was the same as when he left it twenty-nine years ago. When Aditya heard that, he said, "everything had changed."
 
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Iron gate

Aditya then narrated to the narrator how things had changed compared to the olden days. When he was a student, the school was a one-storeyed building. As time passed, another building was constructed. He also indicated that it had never been there before.

The narrator then asked Aditya whether he was not good at school. After hearing that, Aditya responded, "yes". However, he said that he would always be in second place. After that, they headed to the tea shop. The owner of the tea shop was Nagen uncle. The tea shop was located next to a grocery store across from a Lord Shiva temple. They soon noticed 'Nagen's Tea Cabin' inscribed on the shop's signboard.

When the narrator and Aditya reached the tea shop, they saw Nagen uncle. He was already finished sixty (age) and seemed slightly rugged in appearance. His hair appeared white, and he had nicely combed it. He wore a dhoti with a blue striped shirt and a green scarf over his shirt.
 
Meanings of the difficult words:
 
S.No
Words
Meanings
1
Grocery  A store that sells food and small things for the home
2
Sight Something that is in someone's view
3
Signboard A sign with information on it or showing the business's name, school, hospital, etc
4
Rustic Simple and often rough in appearance; typical of the countryside
5
Dhoti A loose piece of clothing wrapped around the lower half of the body, worn by some men from South Asia
6
ShawlA piece of cloth used to cover the head and shoulders
7
Striped A line on a surface that is a different colour from the rest of the surface
8
Shirt A piece of clothing worn on the upper part of the body, made of cloth and often having a collar and buttons at the front
Reference:
State Council of Educational Research and Training (2018). Term-1, English Standard-10. The Attic -Satyajit Ray (pp. 94-114). Published by the Tamil Nadu Textbook and Educational Services Corporation.