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Theory:

Singular nouns are used to refer to one person or one animal.
Example:
1. book
2. cat
3. leaf
A plural noun is a word that refers to that there is more than one person, animal, place, thing, or idea.
Example:
1. books
2. cats
3. leaves
Rules to change singular into plural noun:

1. To make regular nouns plural, add '-s' to the end.

Example:

i) dog - dogs

ii) river - rivers

2. If the singular noun ends in '‑s', '-ss', '-sh', '-ch', '-x', or '-z', add '‑es' to the end to make it plural.

Example:

i) bus - buses

ii) wish - wishes

iii) lunch - lunches

3. In some cases, singular nouns ending in '-s' or '-z', require that you double the '-s' or '-z' before adding the '-es' for pluralization.

Example:

i) gas - gasses

ii) glass - glasses

iii) fez – fezzes

4. If the noun ends with '‑f' or '‑fe', the 'f' is often changed to '‑ve' before adding the '-s' to form the plural version.

Example:
i) wolf - wolves

Exceptions:    

Example:

i) roof - roofs  

ii) belief - beliefs

5. If a singular noun ends in '‑y' and the letter before the '-y' is a consonant, change the ending to '‑ies' to make the noun plural.

Example:

i) puppy - puppies

ii) baby - babies

iii) daisy - daisies

6. If the singular noun ends in '-y' and the letter before the '-y' is a vowel, add an '-s' to make it plural.

Example:

i) ray - rays

ii) boy - boys

7. If the singular noun ends in '‑o', add '‑es' to make it plural.

Example:
i) tomato - tomatoes

Exceptions:

Example:

i) photo - photos

ii) piano - pianos

Important!

You can apply the standard pluralization for words that end in -o or not with the unique word volcano. It's your choice! Both of the following are correct:

  • Volcanoes
  • Volcanos

8. If the singular noun ends in '‑us', the plural ending is frequently '‑I'.

Example:

i) focus - foci

ii) fungus - fungi

9. If the singular noun ends in '‑is', the plural ending is '‑es'.

Example:

i) ellipsis - ellipses

ii) oasis - oases

iii) diagnosis- diagnoses

10. If the singular noun ends in '‑on', the plural ending is '‑a'.

Example:

i) phenomenon - phenomena

ii) criterion - criteria

11. Some nouns don't change at all when they're pluralized.

Example:

i) sheep - sheep

ii) series - series

iii) species - species

Some of the singular and plural nouns used in the lesson "The Last Lesson":
1. bird - birds
2. wood - woods
3. soldier - soldiers
4. desk - desks
5. classmate - classmates
6. day - days
7. spectacle - spectacles
8. children - children
9. egg - eggs
10. lesson - lessons
11. beetle - beetles
12. pigeon - pigeons
13. trunk - trunks
14. flower - flowers
15.battle - battles
16. hand - hands
17. bench - benches
18. school - schools
19. book - books
20. saint - saints
21. friend - friends
22. tree - trees
23. garden - gardens
24. flag - flags