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Theory:

The lesson "The Tempest" is an extract taken from Charles and Mary Lamb's "Tales from Shakespeare". 
 
The lesson opens with the narrator stating that there is an island in the sea. The island's only inhabitants were an elderly man and his daughter. Prospero was the old man's name, and Miranda was his daughter. Miranda was a lovely young woman. She arrived on the island when she was an infant. She had no remembrance of seeing any other human face on the island because she had only seen his father's face and knew no one else.
 
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An island in the sea

The narrator then stated that the father and his daughter were lived in a cave. The cave was made up of rock. The room was separated into numerous chambers. He used one of his rooms as a study where he kept his books. The majority of his books dealt with the subject of magic. By using his magic, Prospero had freed several good spirits from a witch named Sycorax (a ferocious and powerful witch and the mother of Caliban), who had imprisoned all good spirits in the bodies of giant trees. Prospero set the good spirits free; they became loyal to him and began obeying his commands and wishes. Ariel was the most important of all the good spirits.
 
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Prospero and Miranda lived in a cave
  
Ariel took immense joy in torturing an ugly monster Caliban. Caliban was the son of his old enemy Sycorax.
 
Sycorax had imprisoned Ariel in the bodies of large trees. So Ariel gave Caliban a lot of responsibilities and treated him like a slave. Caliban was compelled to carry woods and perform the most difficult chores. As Ariel was the chief of the good spirits, he could force Caliban to perform his responsibilities.
 
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Caliban
 
After telling about the roles and responsibilities of Ariel, the narrator stated that with the help of all the good spirits, Prospero was able to control the winds and the waves of the sea. When Prospero ordered the spirits to produce a storm, they raised a violent storm in the sea.
 
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A violent storm in the sea
 
Meanwhile, Prospero showed his daughter a large ship, telling her that it was full of human beings just like them. He made the statement because Miranda hadn't seen any other human face before. After hearing that, Miranda felt pity for the living beings on the ship. She pleaded with her father to stop the storm and show mercy on those poor people. She told him to rescue them since the ship would be shattered if he didn't help them. She also stated that they were poor souls and that if the situation continued, they would all die.
 
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A large ship stuck in the storm
 
When Prospero saw his daughter's distress, he responded, "Don't worry, my child, nothing bad is going to happen." He claimed he had given the order so that no one on board would be hurt. Furthermore, he stated that all he had done was solely for Miranda's benefit. He then asked her whether she remembered when she came to the cell. He further stated that he believes she was unaware of those events because she was less than three years old when they arrived on the island.
 
Prospero began narrating the story to Miranda about how they came to the island. He said that twelve years ago, he was the Duke of Milan. Miranda was his princess and the only heir of their kingdom.
 
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Prospero, the Duke of Milan
 
Prospero then introduced another character to his daughter: Antonio. He was his younger brother. Prospero had blind faith in Antonio. When Antonio had his brother's power, he considered himself to be the Duke of Milan. Instead of using his talents for good, Antonio abused them, becoming extremely ambitious and attempting to rob Prospero's realm. Antonio accomplished this with the assistance of the King of Naples, who was Prospero's foe. The King of Naples and Antonio planned to send Prospero away from the kingdom.
 
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Wicked Antonio and the King of Naples
 
After hearing that, Miranda wondered why they did not kill them. Prospero then said they couldn't do so since his countrymen loved him more. Antonio realised he wouldn't attack his brother Prospero from his kingdom. As a result, he decided to expel him from the palace. Antonio took Miranda and Prospero onto the ship. When the ship moved some miles away at sea, Antonio pushed them into a small boat. The boat did not have a mast, sail, or tackle. Antonio abandoned them there, hoping that Prospero and Miranda would drown. A good lord of Prospero's court named Gonzalo had foreseen the problem earlier. He had hidden water, food, and clothing in the boat. This shows Gonzalo's loyalty to his king. Gonzalo had also placed several books in the boat, which Prospero valued more than his title. The books were more valuable to Prospero since they gave him magic powers and helped him defeat his foes.
 
After hearing the sad story, Miranda said that Prospero had faced trouble because of her. Prospero told her that she was a little angel and she was the reason he was saved from the disaster. In addition, he stated that her innocent smiles made him overcome the obstacles that arose in their path. He also said that Gonzalo's timely help kept them alive on the boat. The food also lasted till they arrived on the deserted island. The term "deserted island" refers to a place where there was no human habitation. He claimed that educating Miranda gave him great joy while on the island. Later, he asked whether his advice had been helpful to her.
 
Miranda then expressed her gratitude to her father for sharing childhood experiences and teaching her virtues. Then she asked her father the reason behind raising the sea-storm. Prospero then stated that his adversaries, the King of Naples and his terrible brother, Antonio, had been brought onshore on this island by this storm.
 
After telling them about that, Miranda's father gently touched her with the magic wand. As a result, his daughter fell asleep quickly. Ariel later appeared in front of him to provide a detailed description of the storm and how he had dealt with the ship's crew. Prospero made her sleep because the spirits were invisible to her. Even though Miranda was always unaware of the spirits, Prospero did not choose for her to hear him conversing with the empty air.
 
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Magic wand
  
Prospero praised Ariel for following his order and asked him how he accomplished the mission. After hearing that, Ariel gave a lively description of the storm. He made it to give a clear picture to Prospero. He described the mariners' fears due to the heavy storm. Moreover, Ariel said that the king's son, Ferdinand, was the first to fall into the sea. When he fell, his father thought he was swallowed by the waves and was lost in that sea.
 
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Ferdinand drowning in the sea
 
Ariel then said that Ferdinand was safe in the corner of the island. Then he described the state of mind of Ferdinand. He stated that Ferdinand thought he had lost his father to the sea and was mourning the loss.
 
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Lamenting Prince
 
Later, Prospero said, "That's my delicate Ariel". Here the term "delicate" means that Prospero praised Ariel for obeying his order. He asked Ariel to bring Ferdinand before him. He wanted to show the young prince to his daughter because she had seen no human face other than her father's. Then he asked him where was his brother Antonio and the King of Naples. Ariel then said that he had left everyone near the island. They searched for Ferdinand with no hope because they saw him drown in the sea.
 
Moreover, Ariel added that no one on the ship was missing. But the people who sailed in the ship believed that they were the only ones saved from the storm. In addition, Ariel said that the ship was invisible to them and it was safe in the harbour. Ariel then went to bring Ferdinand in front of Prospero.
 
When Ariel saw Ferdinand, he said, "O my young gentleman". Ariel said that he would take him to Miranda. Ariel believed that Ferdinand must be brought for Lady Miranda to see the good humane person. He asked Ferdinand to follow him. As Ariel was a spirit, Ferdinand was unable to see him. He could hear only the voice of Ariel. Ferdinand, in astonishment, followed Ariel's voice and reached near Prospero and Miranda.
 
Meanwhile, Prospero and Miranda were sitting under the shade of a large tree. When Ferdinand reached there, she saw Ferdinand. She was surprised to see him because she had never seen any other human face than her father's.
After seeing her face, Prospero asked his daughter what she was looking for. Miranda exclaimed in a strange surprise and said it was a spirit for sure. In addition, she said that the creature looked beautiful. Later, she asked if it was not a spirit. Miranda made these statements because she had never seen such a lovely creature before. While seeing the beautiful appearance of Ferdinand, she was unable to accept the truth that he was a human being. And also, she was not aware there was human existence in the world.
 
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A handsome young Prince
  
After hearing his daughter's strange words, Prospero said that the creature was not a spirit. He was a human being who ate and slept and had the senses such as they have. In addition, he stated that this young man she had seen had been on the ship. He made the statement to understand that the handsome young man was caught in the heavy storm that occurred in the sea.
Prospero said that sadness changed Ferdinand, or she might call him handsome. He was in grief because he was separated from his friends and looked for them.
 
The narrator then stated that Miranda believed every man had a serious face and grey beard like her father. She became overjoyed when she saw the handsome young prince's appearance. On the other hand, after seeing Miranda's stunning appearance on the lonely island, Ferdinand believed it was magical. The reason behind Ferdinand's belief was that he came to the place following a strange voice, and when he came there, he saw a beautiful lady. Meanwhile, he considered Miranda, a goddess and began to address her that way. He might have addressed her as a goddess because no one could survive in the strange land. He might have thought she had magical powers to survive on this island. It could also be because she looked divine and beautiful.
 
After hearing Ferdinand's thoughts, Miranda said she was not a goddess. Prospero interrupted her in the middle of giving a brief description of herself. Prospero learned from their conversation that they were both attracted to each other. But, as a father, Prospero couldn't blindly believe Ferdinand. He was also the son of his enemy. So, to carry through with his plan, Prospero spoke harshly that Ferdinand had come to his island as a spy to steal the island from him. He said that he was going to tie his neck and feet together. In addition, he said that Ferdinand would drink seawater and eat shellfish, withered roots, and husks of acorns; these would be his food. Through this, Prospero tries to create an image of punishing Ferdinand for being on the island.
 
After hearing that, Ferdinand said that he would oppose the order of Prospero. As a result of it, he took his sword out. Prospero then waved his magic wand and immobilised Ferdinand. Later, Ferdinand became powerless to move. On the other hand, upon seeing her father's unnatural behaviour, she asked, "Why are you so ungentle?" She asked her father to show mercy on the young man. She added that Ferdinand was the second human she had. Moreover, she assured him that Ferdinand seemed to be a genuine person.
 
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When Prospero took out his sword, Prospero immobilised him
  
When Miranda tried to support Ferdinand, her father stopped her. He insisted that if she attempted to say one more word to support him, he would scold her. In addition, he said that she was supporting a fraudster. Prospero then stated that after seeing Ferdinand and Caliban, Miranda believed that there were no more such lovely men in the world. Prospero threw these words towards his daughter to test her affection towards Ferdinand. He was testing whether she blindly believed him. After hearing her father's talk, Miranda said that her emotions towards Ferdinand were extremely humble. She had no idea that she would see a better man like Ferdinand. Later, Prospero tells Ferdinand to come along with him. He said that Ferdinand had no right to disobey him. It means that as he was his slave, Ferdinand had to obey the order of Prospero.
 
Prospero then commanded Ferdinand to stack some big logs of wood. But Ferdinand was not used to doing difficult work. Usually, the king's sons were unfamiliar with the tough work. After seeing the situation of Ferdinand, Miranda realised that he was almost dying of exhaustion. Miranda felt sad upon seeing his condition. She told Ferdinand to rest because her father was in the study and he wouldn't come to the place for three hours. She asked him to take a break. After hearing that, Ferdinand told her that he could not rest because he had to finish his work before Prospero arrived. He also remarked that he would finish his work before taking a rest.
 
Miranda couldn't leave while he was undertaking difficult chores. So he asked him to sit for a while, and she would do the remaining work. Ferdinand disagreed with her idea.
 
Prospero assigned the task for Ferdinand to test the love of Ferdinand for his daughter. Prospero was not in his study, and he was standing by them, invisible to overhear what they were speaking about.
 
Ferdinand then questioned her name, which she revealed, claiming she had done so against her father's specific command. Then Ferdinand told Miranda, in a long speech, that he was the future King of Naples and that she should be his queen.
 
While Ferdinand was speaking to Miranda, Prospero came in front of them and said, "fear nothing, my child". He had overheard everything and said that he would agree with their thoughts. He also said he had kept the test to know whether Ferdinand truly loved her daughter. He then went on to say that if he had been too harsh with him, he would make things right by giving his daughter to him. Furthermore, he stated that his difficulties were only tests of his love, which he had bravely succeeded. Later, he asked Ferdinand to accept her daughter as a gift.
 
Prospero then left the place. After leaving Miranda and Ferdinand, Prospero called his spirit Ariel. He quickly came in front of Prospero. Ariel was eager to inform what he did to Prospero's brother and the King of Naples. Ariel said that he had frightened them to death. When they became tired and hungry due to their wanderings, Ariel prepared a delicious feast. When they went to eat, he suddenly appeared in front of them. He appeared in a harpy, a voracious monster with wings. Later, the feast got vanished. He began speaking to them to make them even more terrified. He reminded them of the cruelty they had shown to Prospero and his daughter. He made them remember that they had drowned the king and his daughter in the sea. Then he said that these hardships were inflicted on them because of their cruelty towards the king and his daughter.

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Ariel appeared as a harpy monster with wings
  
The King of Naples and Antonio, the wicked brother of Prospero, expressed regret for the injustice they had committed against Prospero.
 
After hearing that, Prospero ordered Ariel to bring Antonio and old Gonzalo to where he was residing. Very soon, Ariel returned with them. Gonzalo was the same man who had kindly provided Prospero with books and provisions when his cruel brother had abandoned him to perish in an open boat in the sea. The sorrow and terror had so blunted Antonio's and the King of Naples feelings that they had no idea who Prospero was.
 
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Old Gonzalo
 
Prospero first revealed himself to Gonzalo, whom he referred to as "the preserver of his life," Then, his brother and the King realised he was Prospero, who had been injured. Antonio later apologised for his mistakes and begged his brother to forgive him with tears in his eyes. After they promised to return the kingdom to Prospero, he forgave them. Then Prospero told the King of Naples that he had a present. In the meantime, Prospero opened the door to reveal his son Ferdinand and Miranda playing chess. The King's joy was uncontrollable after seeing his son. Nothing in the world could exceed the bliss between a father and a son. They were overjoyed since they had both assumed the other had drowned in the sea.
 
The King of Naples was almost as taken aback by Miranda's beauty as his son had been. When the King of Naples saw her, he inquired who this attractive lady was. Ferdinand later revealed that she was the daughter of Prospero, the famous Duke of Milan. Furthermore, he stated that he had previously heard of him but had not had the opportunity to meet him. Later, he stated that this gentleman had given him his life back. Prospero had become his second father by giving his lovely daughter to him.
 
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Young beautiful Princess
 
Prospero then stated that there is no need for them to recall previous events. Furthermore, he stated that everything had come to a happy conclusion. Prospero hugged his brother once more, assuring him of his forgiveness. Prospero later informed them that their ship and all of the sailors on board were safe at the harbour and that he and his daughter would be joining them in the morning.
 
Before leaving the island, Prospero dismissed Ariel from his service. He dismissed him because Ariel had played an essential role in bringing his brother and the King of Naples to this island. Prospero released Ariel with great gladness, and the little spirit joyfully left the place.