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Theory:

“Twelve years ago, Miranda,” continued Prospero, “I was Duke of Milan, and you were a princess, and my only heir. I had a younger brother, whose name was Antonio, to whom I trusted everything; My brother Antonio being thus in possession of my power, began to think himself the duke indeed. The opportunity I gave him of making himself popular among my subjects awakened in his bad nature a proud ambition to deprive me of my dukedom: this he soon effected with the aid of the King of Naples, a powerful prince, who was my enemy.”
 
“Wherefore,” said Miranda, “did they not that hour destroy us?”
 
“My child,” answered her father, “they dared not, so dear was the love that my people bore me. Antonio carried us on board a ship, and when we were some leagues out at sea, he forced us into a small boat, without either tackle, sail, or mast: there he left us, as he thought, to perish. But a kind lord of my court, one Gonzalo, who loved me, had privately placed in the boat, water, provisions, apparel, and some books which I prize above my dukedom.”
Explanation:
 
Prospero began narrating the story to Miranda about how they came to the island. He said that twelve years ago, he was the Duke of Milan. Miranda was his princess and the only heir of their kingdom.
 
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Prospero, the Duke of Milan
 
Prospero then introduced another character to his daughter: Antonio. He was his younger brother. Prospero had blind faith in Antonio. When Antonio had his brother's power, he considered himself to be the Duke of Milan. Instead of using his talents for good, Antonio abused them, becoming extremely ambitious and attempting to rob Prospero's realm. Antonio accomplished this with the assistance of the King of Naples, who was Prospero's foe. The King of Naples and Antonio planned to send Prospero away from the kingdom.
 
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Wicked Antonio and the King of Naples
 
After hearing that, Miranda wondered why they did not kill them. Prospero then said they couldn't do so since his countrymen loved him more. Antonio realised he wouldn't attack his brother Prospero from his kingdom. As a result, he decided to expel him from the palace. Antonio took Miranda and Prospero onto the ship. When the ship moved some miles away at sea, Antonio pushed them into a small boat. The boat did not have a mast, sail, or tackle. Antonio abandoned them there, hoping that Prospero and Miranda would drown. A good lord of Prospero's court named Gonzalo had foreseen the problem earlier. He had hidden water, food, and clothing in the boat. This shows Gonzalo's loyalty to his king. Gonzalo had also placed several books in the boat, which Prospero valued more than his title. The books were more valuable to Prospero since they gave him magic powers and helped him defeat his foes.
 
Meanings of the difficult words:
 
S.No
Words
Meanings
1
Heir The person who legally receives money, property, or possessions from someone who has died
2
Possession  The fact that you have or own something
3
Subject A person who lives in or who has the right to live in a particular
4
Deprive  To take something, especially something necessary or pleasant, away from someone
5
Dukedom The rank of a duke, or the land owned by a duke
6
TackleThe equipment used in fishing or to lift or raise things on a ship
7
ProvisionTo supply someone with food, drink, or equipment, especially for a journey
8
Mast A tall pole on a boat or ship that supports its sails
9
ApparelClothes especially of a special type
10
DukeA man of very high rank in a country, or the ruler of a small independent country
Reference:
State Council of Educational Research and Training (2018). Term-1 English Standard-10. The Tempest- William Shakespeare (pp. 21-27). Published by the Tamil Nadu Textbook and Educational Services Corporation.