Theory:

Equivalent fractions:
 
Fractions like 12,24,36,48 have a different numerator and different denominator but represent the same value. These are called equivalent fractions. To find the equivalent fraction of a given fraction, multiply numerator and denominator by the same number.
Example:
\(1/5\) can be converted into its equivalent fraction as, 1×25×2=210;1×35×3=315.
The standard form of rational numbers:
  
A rational number pq is in standard form if its denominator is positive and the common factor between numerator and denominator should be \(1\).
 
Steps to convert rational numbers into the standard form:
 
1. A rational number in the standard form, it will not have a negative sign in the denominator, so pq should be taken as pq.
 
2. Divide the numerator \(p\) and denominator \(q\) by their HCF (Highest Common Factor).
Example:
Write 128 in standard form.
1. Take the negative sign from denominator to the numerator, 128.
 
2.HCF (Highest Common Factor) of numerator \(12\) and denominator \(8\) is \(4\). Divide numerator \(12\) and denominator \(8\) by \(4\) which is equal to 32 that is 12÷48÷4=32.
 
Thus, the standard form of 128 is 32.