Before studying the experiments of Mendel, it is better to know the below terminologies and symbols related to the topic of genetics.
Genome and gene pool:
The term "genome" refers to a complete set of chromosomes in which each gene/chromosome is represented singly. Haploid cells have a single genome, diploid cells have two, and polyploid cells have many.
Human genome to genes
A gene pool is a collection of all the genes and alleles found in an interbreeding population.
Karyotype, locus, allelomorphs and homologous chromosomes:
A karyotype is the collection of chromosomes that makes up an individual. The term also refers to a laboratory technique that produces an image of an individual's chromosomes. The karyotype is used to check for abnormal chromosomal numbers or structures.
Locus is the region of the chromosome in which the gene is located.
Homologous chromosomes are pairs of chromosomes that are identical in size, shape, and gene set. Allelic genes occupy the same loci in homologous chromosomes.
Alleles or allelomorphs are two genes that occur in the same locus on two homologous chromosomes and control the expression of a trait or character. Each gene is made up of an allelomorphic pair. E.g., \(T-T\) and \(t-t\).
Alleles for tall and dwarf
Homozygous and heterozygous:
Homozygous and heterozygous
A homozygous organism has identical alleles of a character's genes—for example, \(TT\), \(RR\), and \(tt\).
An organism with dissimilar alleles of a character's genes is heterozygous—for example, \(Tt\), \(Rr\), and \(Yy\).
A video explaining the homozygous and heterozygous alleles