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### Theory:

Before studying the experiments of Mendel, it is better to know the below terminologies and symbols related to the topic of genetics.
Genome and gene pool:
Genome:

The term "genome" refers to a complete set of chromosomes in which each gene/chromosome is represented singly. Haploid cells have a single genome, diploid cells have two, and polyploid cells have many.

Human genome to genes

Gene pool:

A gene pool is a collection of all the genes and alleles found in an interbreeding population.
Karyotype,  locus, allelomorphs and homologous chromosomes:
Karyotype:

A karyotype is the collection of chromosomes that makes up an individual. The term also refers to a laboratory technique that produces an image of an individual's chromosomes. The karyotype is used to check for abnormal chromosomal numbers or structures.

Human karyotype

Locus:

Locus is the region of the chromosome in which the gene is located.

Gene locus

Homologous chromosomes:

Homologous chromosomes are pairs of chromosomes that are identical in size, shape, and gene set. Allelic genes occupy the same loci in homologous chromosomes.

Homologous chromosomes

Allelomorphs:

Alleles or allelomorphs are two genes that occur in the same locus on two homologous chromosomes and control the expression of a trait or character. Each gene is made up of an allelomorphic pair. E.g., $$T-T$$ and $$t-t$$.

Alleles for tall and dwarf
Homozygous and heterozygous:
Homozygous and heterozygous

Homozygous:

A homozygous organism has identical alleles of a character's genes—for example, $$TT$$, $$RR$$, and $$tt$$.

Heterozygous:

An organism with dissimilar alleles of a character's genes is heterozygous—for example, $$Tt$$, $$Rr$$, and $$Yy$$.

A video explaining the homozygous and heterozygous alleles
Reference: