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### Theory:

Before studying the experiments of Mendel, it is better to know the below terminologies and symbols related to the topic of genetics.
Chromosome, DNA, and gene:
DNA:

"DNA" is a molecule that carries and transmits hereditary information or genetic instructions from parents to offspring.

Eukaryotic DNA

Gene:

The basic physical and functional unit of heredity is the gene. Genes are made up of  DNA.

Chromosome, DNA, and gene
Allele, trait, and character:
A video explaining the alleles and traits

Alleles:

Alleles can be homozygous or heterozygous, that is, be in the same or different state.

Types of chromosome alleles

Allelic genes:

Allelic genes are different states of a single gene.

Alleles on gene

Character:

Character is a distinguishing feature of an individual, such as stem height.

Trait:

A trait is an inherited characteristic and its detectable variants, such as tallness or dwarfism.

Characteristics of pea plants

Allelic traits:

Alternative (allelic) traits are contrasting, mutually exclusive traits (white - violet, tall- dwarf).

Alternative traits of pea plant
Dominant and recessive traits:
A video explaining dominant and recessive alleles

Dominance:

Dominance is the suppression of one alternative feature by another.

Dominant trait:

A dominant trait is a trait that suppresses the development of another alternative trait.

Recessive trait:

A recessive trait is a suppressed trait.

Dominant allele:

The dominant allele is a pair of alleles that can express themselves, whether homozygous or heterozygous. For example, the Red gene ($$V$$) predominates in flower colour over the White gene ($$v$$).

Dominant-recessive inheritance - flowers of pea plants

The recessive factor of allele:

In a heterozygote, the factor of an allelic pair won't express its effect in the presence of its contrasting gene. For example, the '$$a$$' allele in the hybrid pea plant $$Aa$$. The recessive factor is only expressed in homozygous states, for example, $$aa$$ in pea plants.

Monohybrid cross
Reference:
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Eukaryote_DNA-en.svg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Chromosome-DNA-gene_copy.jpg
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Alleles_on_gene.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Mendels_peas.png
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Mendel_pea_traits.svg
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Dominant-recessive_inheritance_-_flowers_of_pea_plants.png