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In this session, we will look at the basics of the magnetic effects of an electric circuit.
We know that an electric current-carrying wire acts like a magnet.
Let us do the following activity to reinforce it.
  • Take a straight, thick copper wire and fix it between the point X and Y in an electric circuit, as shown in the below figure.
Electric circuit
  • The wire \(XY\) is maintained perpendicular to the plane of the paper.
  • Horizontally, place a small compass near this copper wire.
  • Observe the position of its needle.
  • Pass the current through the electric circuit inserting the key into the plug.
  • Observe the change in the position of the compass needle.
We observe that the needle is deflected.
What does it mean? 

It means that the electric current flows through the copper wire have induced a magnetic effect.
Thus, we can state that electricity and magnetism are connected.
Then, what about the opposite to this effect i.e. the possibility of an electric effect of moving magnets?
In the upcoming sections, we will discuss magnetic fields and such electromagnetic effects.
We shall also discuss,
  • Electromagnets and electric motors, which works on the principle of the magnetic effect of electric current, and
  • Electric generators, which works on the principle of the electric effect of moving magnets.