Theory:

Vegetative propagation through modified stem:
  • Plants which have modified stems are called tuberous stem.
  • It has nodes which bear buds which can form new plants.
  • Each of the buds are called the eyes (appears like scar) in a potato which can grow into a new plant when it is planted in the soil.
  • The tubers (stem or root) can store nutrients or food.
Example:
Other plants like ginger and turmeric also have buds on the stem tuber.
potato-5025124_1920.jpg
 
Other methods that involve vegetative propagation through stem are grafting, budding, and layering.
 
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Vegetative propagation through leaves:
 
Bryophyllum (also called sprout leaf plant) has buds in the leaf margin. If the leaf is burried on a moist soil, the margins of the leaves develop into a new plant that resemble parent.
 
800px-Bryophyllum_sp_2.jpg 800px-Bryophyllum_Daigremontianum_macro_1.jpg
 
Vegetative propagation through roots:
  • In plants like sweet potato, dahlia, etc., a new plant develops through tuberous roots (acts as a storage organ) and bulbs (onion).
  • There are buds present on these modified storage roots that can grow above the ground and a new plant is formed.
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Advantages of Vegetative propagation
  • It takes less time to grow and also bears flowers and fruits earlier than those produced from seeds.
  • New plants are exactly the copies of the parent plant.
Summary of vegetative propagation with examples:
 
Vegetative propagation
Example
Stem cuttings
Sugarcane, rose, champa, grapes, jasmine, banana, cactus
Modified stem
Potato, ginger, and turmeric
Leaf
Bryophyllum
Root cuttings
Sweet potato, dahlia, blackberry
 
Reference:
https://pixabay.com/photos/potato-harvest-vegetable-garden-5025124/
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Bryophyllum_sp_2.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Bryophyllum_Daigremontianum_macro_1.jpg