Before studying the experiments of Mendel, it is better to know the below terminologies and symbols related to the topic of genetics.
Chromosome, DNA, and gene:
"DNA" is a molecule that carries and transmits hereditary information or genetic instructions from parents to offspring.
The basic physical and functional unit of heredity is the gene. Genes are made up of DNA.
Chromosome, DNA, and gene
Allele, trait, and character:
A video explaining the alleles and traits
Alleles can be homozygous or heterozygous, that is, be in the same or different state.
Types of chromosome alleles
Allelic genes are different states of a single gene.
Alleles on gene
Character is a distinguishing feature of an individual, such as stem height.
A trait is an inherited characteristic and its detectable variants, such as tallness or dwarfism.
Characteristics of pea plants
Alternative (allelic) traits are contrasting, mutually exclusive traits (white - violet, tall- dwarf).
Alternative traits of pea plant
Dominant and recessive traits:
A video explaining dominant and recessive alleles
Dominance is the suppression of one alternative feature by another.
A dominant trait is a trait that suppresses the development of another alternative trait.
A recessive trait is a suppressed trait.
The dominant allele is a pair of alleles that can express themselves, whether homozygous or heterozygous. For example, the Red gene (\(V\)) predominates in flower colour over the White gene (\(v\)).
Dominant-recessive inheritance - flowers of pea plants
The recessive factor of allele:
In a heterozygote, the factor of an allelic pair won't express its effect in the presence of its contrasting gene. For example, the '\(a\)' allele in the hybrid pea plant \(Aa\). The recessive factor is only expressed in homozygous states, for example, \(aa\) in pea plants.