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Theory:

Before studying the experiments of Mendel, it is better to know the below terminologies and symbols related to the topic of genetics.
Genome and gene pool:
Genome:
 
The term "genome" refers to a complete set of chromosomes in which each gene/chromosome is represented singly. Haploid cells have a single genome, diploid cells have two, and polyploid cells have many.
 
Human_genome_to_genes.png
Human genome to genes
 
Gene pool:
 
A gene pool is a collection of all the genes and alleles found in an interbreeding population.
Karyotype,  locus, allelomorphs and homologous chromosomes:
Karyotype:
  
A karyotype is the collection of chromosomes that makes up an individual. The term also refers to a laboratory technique that produces an image of an individual's chromosomes. The karyotype is used to check for abnormal chromosomal numbers or structures.
 
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Human karyotype
 
Locus: 
  
Locus is the region of the chromosome in which the gene is located.
 
GeneLociandAlleles.png
Gene locus
 
Homologous chromosomes: 
 
Homologous chromosomes are pairs of chromosomes that are identical in size, shape, and gene set. Allelic genes occupy the same loci in homologous chromosomes.
 
Chromosome_Terminology.png
Homologous chromosomes
 
Allelomorphs:
  
Alleles or allelomorphs are two genes that occur in the same locus on two homologous chromosomes and control the expression of a trait or character. Each gene is made up of an allelomorphic pair. E.g., \(T-T\) and \(t-t\).
 
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Alleles for tall and dwarf
Homozygous and heterozygous:
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Homozygous and heterozygous
 
Homozygous:
 
A homozygous organism has identical alleles of a character's genes—for example, \(TT\), \(RR\), and \(tt\).
 
Heterozygous:
 
An organism with dissimilar alleles of a character's genes is heterozygous—for example, \(Tt\), \(Rr\), and \(Yy\).
 
A video explaining the homozygous and heterozygous alleles
Reference:
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/40/Human_genome_to_genes.png
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Gene_Loci_and_Alleles.png
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/ea/Chromosome_Terminology.png