### Theory:

Diseases are widespread in our society due to our poor way of life, stress, and strain. These diseases are non-communicable and affect only those who exhibit specific symptoms. It is an impairment of body tissue or organ and disturbances in metabolic function that necessitates changes in everyday life.

Lifestyle changes cause several diseases such as diabetes, obesity and heart disease. Regular physical activity aids in the prevention of obesity, heart disease, hypertension, diabetes, and premature death.

Diabetes is a condition that occurs when your blood sugar levels are abnormally high. Blood glucose is our primary source of energy, obtained from the food we consume. Insulin, a hormone produced by the pancreas, aids in transporting glucose from food into our cells for use as energy.

Sometimes our bodies do not produce enough insulin. So, glucose remains in our blood and does not reach our cells. Having too much glucose in our blood can lead to health problems over time. Although there is no cure for diabetes, we can take steps to manage it and stay healthy.

If someone has diabetes, making lifestyle changes can help them control the disease's severity. They must consume nutritious foods. They should exercise regularly. They should be stress-free, and they should abstain from tobacco and alcohol. All of these factors contribute to their ability to live healthy lives.  In this section, we will study Diabetes Mellitus and its types.

Diabetes Mellitus:

Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder that lasts for a long time. In Greek, Diabetes means "running through", and Mellitus means "sweet". It is distinguished by elevated blood glucose levels resulting from insufficient, deficient, or failedinsulin secretion.

Diabetes Mellitus is the most common pancreatic endocrine disorder. Diabetes, both type $$1$$ and type $$2$$, is becoming more common worldwide.

Type- $$1$$ Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (IDDM)

IDDM accounts for ten to twenty per cent of all known diabetics. The condition can also affect children (juvenile-onset diabetes) and young adults; the onset is usually abrupt and fatal. It is caused by the destruction of pancreatic - β cells. It is distinguished by abnormally elevated blood glucose levels (hyperglycemia) caused by insufficient insulin secretion.

Causes: This condition is caused by genetic inheritance and environmental factors such as virus infections and acute stress.

A picture explains the reasons and symptoms of Type-1 Diabetes Mellitus.

Type-$$2$$ Non-Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (NIDDM)

Type-$$2$$ Non-Insulin dependent diabetes is also known as adult-onset diabetes, and it accounts for $$80$$ to $$90$$% of the diabetic population. It develops slowly and is usually milder and more stable.

The pancreas produces insulin normally, but its action is impaired. Insulin does not affect the target cells. It prevents the movement of glucose into cells.

A picture explains the reasons for Type-1 Diabetes Mellitus
Causes
The multifactorial causes include increasing age (affecting middle-aged and older people), obesity, sedentary lifestyle, overeating, and inactivity.

Diabetes mellitus is associated with many metabolic changes. A few essential symptoms are listed below:

Hyperglycemia - Increased blood glucose level.

Polyuria - Increased urine output leading to dehydration.
Polydipsia - Loss of water causes thirst resulting in increased fluid intake.
Glycosuria - Excessive glucose excreted in the urine.
Polyphagia - Excessive hunger due to glucose loss in urine.
• Fatigue and weight loss

A picture explains the treatment, complications and symptoms of Diabetes Mellitus.
Important!
• According to the World Health Organization, diabetes will be the seventh leading cause of death by $$2030$$.
• People with diabetes account for one out of every eight people in India. According to revised WHO estimates, India will have $$57.2$$ million diabetics by $$2025$$.
• The average age of onset diabetes in the India is $$40$$ years, while 55 years in other countries.
• According to WHO guidelines, if the fasting blood glucose level is greater than $$140 mg/dl$$or the random blood glucose level is greater than $$200 mg/dl$$on more than two occasions, confirming diabetes is necessary.