Anomalous expansion of water
The ice volume is greater than the water volume for the same quantity of ice and water. Water has an uncommon physical characteristic. The temperature in the Himalayas can drop below \(0\)°C. At this temperature, the water in the pipes will turn to ice. The pipes can crack, leak or even break if they are not strong enough. This is due to the fact that when water freezes, it expands in volume.
Latent heat of fusion of ice
The latent heat of fusion of ice refers to the amount of heat energy required for ice to convert into water.
Place a thermometer in a beaker full of ice cubes. Now, heat the beaker. Until all of the ice melts, the thermometer will show no change in temperature. If there is no increase in temperature, where does the heat energy go? Heat energy is used to convert ice from a solid-state to a liquid-state. Ice has the highest latent heat of fusion, i.e., \(80\) calories/g or \(336\) J/g.
Placing fish and meat in contact with ice helps to keep them fresh. Due to its higher latent heat, ice can absorb a lot of heat from the fish as it melts. Thus, food can be preserved at a low temperature for a long time.
Fish in ice
Latent heat of vaporisation of waterWhen the water hits a temperature of \(100\)°C, it begins to convert from a liquid to a gaseous state. However, the water does not reach much over \(100\)°C because the given heat energy affects the boiling state of the water. This heat energy is known as latent heat of vaporisation of steam because it is stored in steam. The steam has the highest latent heat of vaporization, and its value is \(540\) calories/g or \(2268\) J/g.
Specific heat capacity
The specific heat capacity of water is moderately high. One calorie of heat is required to raise the temperature of one gram of water by \(1\)°C. Water takes a long time to heat up and cool down due to its large specific heat capacity. Thus, water can absorb/consume a lot of heat and hold it for a longer period of time. Water has this ability, which is used to keep the engine cool. The heat is absorbed by water circulating around the car engine by the radiator pump. Thus, the engine is protected from overheating.
The amount of heat required to increase the temperature of a unit mass of a substance by \(1\)°C is known as its Specific heat capacity.