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The physical properties of water are listed below:
  • Nature
  • Boiling point
  • Freezing point
  • Density
  • Anomalous expansion of water
  • Latent heat of fusion of ice
  • Latent heat of vaporisation of water
  • Specific heat capacity
Pure water is a clear, transparent, odourless and tasteless liquid.
Boiling point
At one atmosphere pressure (\(1\) atm), water has a boiling point of \(100\)°C. Water boils and turns into steam at this temperature. With increasing pressure, the boiling point of water increases. For example, when a pressure cooker is heated, high pressure is created inside it; thus, the boiling point of water rises. Therefore, water in the cooker remains a liquid at a higher temperature (>\(100\)°C). This speeds up the cooking process.
Physical properties of pure water:
  • Boils at \(100\)°C at \(1\) atm pressure
  • Freezes at exactly \(0\)°C at \(1\) atm pressure
  • Density is \(1\) \(gm/cm^\(3\)\)
Freezing point
Water freezes at \(0\)°C and forms ice; hence, the freezing point of water is \(0\)°C. With increasing pressure, the freezing point of water decreases.
Skaters put pressure on the ice by moving around on it. The freezing point is lowered as an effect of this pressure. As a result, the ice beneath the skate melts and the skaters are able to glide across the ice with no effort. As the skaters move forward, the pressure on the ice decreases and the water re-freezes.
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When you put ice cubes in water at room temperature, they will float on top. This is because ice is lighter than water.
Ice cubes float on water
It is stated that ice has a lesser density than water: the water in the lake freezes when the temperature drops below \(0\)°C in the winter. The ice will float to the top of the lake by cover it. Ice does not allow heat to pass through it because it is a poor conductor of heat. As a result, the water beneath the ice remains liquid, containing the majority of aquatic life. This allows aquatic animals and plants to live even in the coldest climates.