The cultivation of economically important aquatic organisms like fishes, prawns, shrimps, crabs, lobsters, edible oysters, pearl oysters and seaweeds under controlled and confined environmental conditions using advanced technologies is known as aquaculture. It is also known as fish farming.
Types of aquaculture:
Aquaculture of fish farming is of two types. They are as follows:
  1. Freshwater aquaculture
  2. Marine water aquaculture (Mariculture)
1. Freshwater aquaculture:
The cultivation of aquatic organisms in freshwater is called freshwater aquaculture. This culture of organisms is carried out in freshwater resources such as ponds, rivers, dams, lakes and cold water. These resources remain within the land.
Freshwater aquaculture
Tilapia, carps (Catla, Rohu, Mrigal), catfishes, and air-breathing fishes
2. Marine water Aquaculture:
The cultivation of aquatic organisms in sea water is known as marine water aquaculture or mariculture or sea farming. The culturing of these organisms is carried out along the sea coast (inshore area) and in the deep sea.
Marine aquaculture
Shrimps or marine prawns, pearl oysters, mussels, edible oysters, finfishes like salmons, sea bass, milk fishes and mullets
Tamil Nadu is a state that is rich in fishery resources from Marine, Inland and Coastal Aquaculture. The marine fisheries and inland fishery resources have potential to yield \(0.719\) million tonnes and \(4.5\) lakh metric tonnes of fishes, respectively. Due to this, Tamil Nadu ranks sixth among the maritime states in coastal farming.
Prospects of Aquaculture:
To meet the demands of food and nutrition aquaculture has become one of the fastest developing food-producing sectors through its increased production from aquatic food resources. This aims at blue revolution as is a major source of export and foreign exchange earnings for the country. This sector also generates employment through fish farming in rural and underdeveloped area.