Disease: Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS)
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome is a disease (AIDS) caused by the pathogen HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus). It is a retrovirus and was first recognised in Haiti (USA) in \(1981\). In India, the first confirmed evidence of AIDS infection was reported in April \(1986\) from Tamil Nadu.
There are many vaccination trials conducted across the world to prevent the AIDS. The most prominent one is the RV \(144\) vaccine trial which shows \(30%\) reduced HIV risk. This trial was conducted in Thailand in \(2003\), and reports were presented in \(2011\).
HIV Virus

Causative organism:\(AIDS\) is caused by a retrovirus (RNA virus) known as Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV).
Structure of HIV

Mode of transmission: It is transmitted through,
  • A sexual contact (from an infected person to a healthy person)
  • Blood contact (transfusion of unscreened blood)
  • By surgical equipment (infected needles and syringes)
  • Maternal – foetal transmission (from infected mother to the foetus via).
Mode of transmission and non transmission of HIV

Tissues/Organs affected: The immune system plays a vital role in fighting against infections in human body. Human Immunodeficiency Virus mainly attacks the white blood cells or lymphocytes (T-lymphocytes), acting as the body's immune system or self-defence mechanism. Over time, HIV weakens the body's immune system, so it has a tough time-fighting disease.

Some of the important symptoms are,
  • Weight loss
  • Prolonged fever
  • Sweating at night
  • Chronic diarrhoea
Symptoms of HIV infection

Prevention and Control:
• Disposable syringes and needles should be used.
• Protected and safe sexual contact.
• Screening of blood before blood transfusion.
• Avoid sharing shaving blades/razors.
• People should be educated about \(AIDS\) transmission.
Prevention and control measures of AIDS
Robert Gallo at National Institute of Health, USA and Luc Montagnier at Pasteur Institute, Paris in 1983 isolated the HIV which causes AIDS.