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Magadha became an empire among the four Mahajanapadas:
Geographical location:

Magadh's good geographical location aided its expansion considerably. On the north, the Ganges, the west, the Sone, and on the east, the Champa river surrounded the Magadha empire. In the south, the Vindhyas' spurs guarded it. As a result, the Magadha empire was protected from all sides.
The Rajgir and Pataliputra capitals of the Magadha empire were strategically located. Rajgir had become impregnable, surrounded by a series of five hills.
Pataliputra was located at the confluence of the Ganga, the Gandak, and the Sone rivers. Pataliputra was thus in a strategic position, commanding communications from all sides.
According to early Buddhist and Jaina sources, Vulers such as Bimbisar, Ajatshatru, and Mahapadam Nanda contributed significantly to the empire's expansion. They grew and reinforced their kingdom through their policies, transforming it into a huge empire.
Natural Resources:

The massive iron reserves (in modern-day Jharkhand) were critical to the Magadha empire's growth. The richest iron reserves were found not far from Rajgir, Magadha's capital.
The Magadha rulers were able to arm themselves with efficient weapons due to the abundance of rich iron ores in the vicinity of the capital. On the other hand, their adversaries did not have easy access to efficient iron weapons.
The empire of Magadha was a thriving one. It had exceptionally fertile land due to its location in the central Gangetic plain. The forests had been cleared using iron tools and devices, and the area had received adequate rainfall.
Army and Weapons:
Magadha possessed a sizable army. The infantry, cavalry, elephants, and chariots made up the army. The army was armed with powerful iron weaponry. Magadh was the first state to have an army with a significant elephant troop.
Elephants were utilised in particular for storming fortifications. When advancing through marshy areas, elephants were more valuable than horses. Undoubtedly, the big and powerful army played a vital role in the Magadha empire's expansion.
In comparison to other states, Magadha was more advanced. Non-Aryans were the majority in this culture, and they were opposed to the growth of orthodox and Brahmanical systems.
As a result, compared to other governments, Magadha was more liberal, and the Magadhan people were tremendously enthusiastic about the expansion of their kingdom.
These causes contributed significantly to the Magadha empire's expansion and development into India's first empire.