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Dynasties of Ancient Magadha:
 
Ancient Magadha Dynasties The Magadha Empire was controlled by four dynasties.
 
1. The Haryanka dynasty
 
2. The Shishunaga dynasty 
 
3. The Nanda dynasty 
 
4. The Maurya dynasty
  
Haryanka Dynasty:
 
The Haryanka Dynasty was ruled by three monarchs. Bimbisara, the founder of the Magadha Empire, came from the Haryanka dynasty. Ajatashatru and Udayin were the other two rulers.
 
Bimbisara ruled for around fifty-two years, according to Buddhist sources (\(544\) BC to \(492\) BC). Bimbisara was the ruler of Magadha when it was founded. Conquest and aggression were the policies of the first Magadhan ruler.
 
He was a ruler who was dissatisfied with his current situation. He even exploited marriage as a policy to strengthen his status. This helped him achieve tremendous diplomatic clout and prepared the stage for Magadha's westward and northward expansion.
 
Shishunaga Dynasty:
 
1. After the Haryanka dynasty, the Shishunaga dynasty governed Magadha.
 
2. The Shishunaga dynasty was founded by Shishunaga.
 
3. He was the final Haryanka dynasty emperor Nagdashak's minister or amatya.
 
4. In \(412\) B.C., he killed Nagdashak and founded the Shishunaga dynasty.
 
5. Shishunaga annexed the Avanti, Vatsa, and Kosala territories to Magadha.
 
6. Shishunaga's capital was moved from Rajgriha to Patliputra.
 
7. He had a subsidiary capital at Vaishali, according to Buddhist texts.
 
8. In \(344\) B.C., Shishunaga was succeeded by Kalashoka.
 
9. In the Puranas, he is referred to as Kakavarna, and in the Sinhala chronicles (a Sri Lankan book), he is referred to as Kalashoka.
 
Nanda dynasty:
 
During the \(4\)th century BCE, and perhaps the \(5\)th century BCE, the Nanda dynasty ruled in the northern section of the Indian subcontinent.
Nalanda - UNESCO World Heritage Site. Nalanda was a large Buddhist monastery in the ancient kingdom of Magadha. It became the most renowned seat of learning during the reign of Guptas. The word Nalanda is a Sanskrit combination of three words Na + alam + daa meaning “no stopping of the gift of knowledge”.
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Nalanda University Ruins, the first Buddhism University with blue clear sky in Bihar state in India.
 
In eastern India's Magadha area, the Nandas toppled the Shaishunaga dynasty and expanded their dominion to include a bigger part of northern India.
 
The names of the Nanda monarchs and the length of their reign vary greatly across ancient sources, but based on Buddhist tradition recounted in the Mahavamsa, they appear to have reigned between \(345\) and \(322\) BCE, however some theories place the start of their reign in the \(5\)th century BCE.
 
The monarch of the Gangaridai and the Prasii mentioned in ancient Greco-Roman chronicles is widely identified as a Nanda king, according to modern historians.