Theory:

In this module, let us learn about the importance of election symbols.
 
Electoral Symbols and their importance:
 
An electoral symbol is a standardised symbol allocated to a political party.  They can be easily identified, understood, acknowledged and recognised by the voters. The Election Commission has stopped allotting animals as symbols. The only exceptions are the lion and the elephant.
 
Talukdar David Shutterstock.jpg
 
A nationally recognized party has a standard symbol throughout the country, and that symbol will not be allotted to any other party or individual by the Election commission.
 
State parties are allocated certain symbols that no other party can use the symbol in that particular state. Different parties from different states can use the same symbol.
Example:
Shiv Sena in Maharashtra and Jharkhand Mukti Morcha in Jharkhand both use bow and arrow as their symbol.
The number of recognised parties keeps on changing on the basis of their performance in the general elections.
  
Recognised National parties and their symbols:
  
Name of the Party(Abbreviation)
Symbol reserved
Image
Communist Party of India (CPI)
Ears of Corn and
Sickle
cpi.JPG
Communist Party of India (Marxist)
(CPM)

Hammer, Sickle and
Star
cpim.JPG
Indian National Congress (INC)
Hand
inc.JPG
Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP)
Lotus
bjp.JPG
Nationalist Congress Party (NCP)
Clock
ncp.JPG
All India Trinamool Congress
(AITC)
Flowers and Grass
atk.JPG
Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP)
Elephant
bsp.JPG
 
Recognised Regional / State parties in Tamilnadu:
  
Name of the Party (Abbreviation)
Symbol reserved
Image
Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam
(DMK)
Rising Sun
dmk.JPG
All India Anna Dravida
Munnetra Kazhagam
(ADMK) or (AIADMK)
Two leaves
admk.JPG
Desiya Murpokku Dravida
Kazhagam (DMDK)
Nagara
dmdk.JPG
 
To have a better understanding about all recognised parties in all states, read the following document (from page number -118.)
Reference:
Images - https://eci.gov.in/files/file/10381-political-parties-and-election-symbols/