Polity in South India
  • The period of the \(14th\)\(century\) witnessed drastic political changes in the southern part of the Indian sub-continent. The reckless policies of the Mughal rulers of the Deccan annoyed the native rulers of south India. Mohammed – bin- Tughlaq was ruling the southern states with ill-conceived policies.
  • This irritation among the native rulers led to the emergence of new kingdoms like the Vijayanagar and Bahmani sultans in south India, who took over the reign of the Mughals who were ruling the region.
The Birth of Vijayanagar Empire:
  • The Kingdom of Vijayanagar, which means “the city of victory”, was established by the brothers, namely “Harihara and Bukka”, in \(1336\), where the coronation of Harihara took place. According to some historical sources, these brothers were once the feudatories of the Kakatiya empire of Warangal.
Harihara and Bukka meeting Vidyaranya
  • These Brothers later became the ministers of the Kampili kingdom of Northern Karnataka. Harihara and Bukka decimated the kingdom of Hoysala in \(1346\), which allowed them to extend their dominance over the region.
VIDYARANYA: He was the Shaivaite spiritual guru who re-admitted the Brothers Harihara and Bukka into Hinduism, as they were serving under the sultans. The new city was named 'Vidyanagara' in honour of the spiritual guru, which was later known as Vijaynagara.
The Vijayanagar Kingdom and its disputes:
  • The rulers of Vijayanagar had their share of disputes with the sultans of the Bahmani kingdom who were ruling the Northern part of the south Indian continent.
  • Three areas that served as the bone of contention among the kingdoms of Vijayanagar and the Bahmani sultans are,
    1. Krishna – Godavari delta
    2. Tungabhadra doab
    3. Maratha region
  • These regions are very fertile as they hold the treasure of natural resources. Also, these regions are considered as regions of strategic importance in South India.