Theory:

The Reign of Mahmud Gawan
  • Mahmud Gawan was an Iranian by Birth and was a trader during the Initial phase of his life. He was a well-educated person with proficiency in Islamic verse, Mathematics and prose compositions.
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Madrasa built by Gawan
  • Alauddin Bahman Shah, the founder of the Bahmani kingdom was highly astounded by the knowledge and tactical thoughts of Gawan. He was later appointed as the chief of the armed forces of the Sultan.
Malik –i – Tujjar: This was the title awarded by ruler Humayun shah on Gawan, who was impressed with his trade knowledge. The title also means the “Chief of the Merchants’.
  • He was a loyal servant to the kingdom of Bahman Sultanate whose ideas and administrative methods bought huge laurel to the Kingdom. He also served as a Prime Minister for 20 years under various sultans of the Bahmani Kingdom.
Administration and Military developments:
  • Gawan was an able administrator who divided provinces into “eight administrative units namely Tarafs”, which was governed by Tarafdar. The Salaries for the Tarafdars are paid in cash or land.
  • This division of provinces was done by Gawan to prevent the concentration of powers with the local rulers of the Bahmani Kingdom. He further kept many provinces under the direct control of his seat.
GUNPOWDER: Mahmud Gawan invited Chemists from Arabian countries to invent the formula of Gun powder, which he later used against the Belgaum rulers of Vijayanagar.
  • Gawan also fixed the boundaries of provinces and started collecting Land revenue from the people of the state which further streamlined the economy of the Bahmani Kingdom.
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Nikitin – Russian Chronicler.
  • He also successful conquests the Kingdoms of Odisha, Vijayanagar, and also emerged victorious against the threat of pirates in the Arabian sea.
NIKITIN:  A Russian chronicler visited the Deccan in \(1469\), wrote about the flourishing trade and commerce in the Bahmani Kingdom.
  • Mahmud Gawan laid down stringent measures like reducing the allowances for in-discipline nobles which irked the nobles who were mainly from parts of Deccan.
Final days of Mahmud Gawan
  • Gawan’s penchant for arts never dwindled even during his last days, he established a Madrasa in Bidar province which was built under the Persian style. This place was later visited by many patrons from West Asia.
  • The local Chieftains who were irked by the hardline policies of Gawan plotted against him. The rise of Gawan and his prominence angered the chieftains who built a conspiracy and made the Sultan execute Gawan.
  • The Demise of Gawan was the final nail on the coffin of the Bahmani Kingdom, which met its end after his death