Post the success of the BEIC in the Battle of Plassey, the British company continued its expansionary attitude both commercially and territorially. The company took freehand in areas of Bihar and Bengal. This expansionary mindset became the root cause of the conflicts that took place during the following years in India.
The British - Quest for Territory
Mir Qasim – The Bihar Ruler
- He was an able and courageous ruler of Bihar, who shifted his capital from Murshidabad to Munger for his administrative convenience.
- He considered himself an independent ruler, which angered the British, who want him under their suzerainty. On the other hand, Mir Qasim was simmering with the British as they had started misusing the Dastaks (Royal passes issued for transportation of Goods).
- These differences led to small scale conflicts between the British and Mir Qasim in \(1763 \), where the British emerged victorious in various places like Katwa, Murshidabad and Giria.
- Mir Qasim fled the Battle scene and took asylum in Awadh.
To break the back of the BEIC forces, the escaped Mir Qasim sought the help of like-minded kings of the adjacent territories like Nawab of Awadh Shuja-ud-daula and Shah Alam, the Mughal emperor in a view to restoring the lost glory. This confederate force was ready for the Battle against the company forces.
Building a Confederacy
The Buxar Battle (1764)
- This Battle proved to be highly effective in consolidating the British Empire in India as the confederate forces of three kings were convincingly defeated by the British forces under Munro on the banks of the river Ganga in \(1764\).
Battle of Buxar
- This victory of the British gained them ultimate control over Bengal. This battle ended with the Treaty of Allahabad, by which the Mughal emperor surrendered his rights over Bengal and disbanded his army.
- The British gained the Diwani rights (rights for revenue collection) post the victory. The company established a dual system of governance by appointing deputies to the provinces after the Battle of Buxar.
The British, French Rivalry and the Carnatic wars
- The fight for regional and international supremacy among the European powers spanned across borders, which witnessed death and destruction worldwide and the Indian lands being no exception.
- India's territorial and trade rights were the reason for the tussle between the British and French forces that led to the three Carnatic Wars.
CARNATIC: This is the region of southern peninsular India, comprising the area between the Eastern Ghats and the Coromandel coast.
The first of the Carnatic wars were seen as an extension to the British and the French rivalry in the Austrian War of Succession taking place in Europe. This rivalry transcended across borders and echoed in the mainland of India, Carnatic.
The First War of Carnatic: (1746 – 1748)
Battle of Adayar
This treaty ended the ongoing Austrian war of Succession between the French and the British Forces. Under the treaty, the French left the Netherlands in Europe and Madras was handed over to the British, where the British gave Louisberg and territories of North America to the French in return.
Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle (1748):