Theory:

The Evolution of Police under British:
  • One of the important administrative organs of the British was the Police system which they used to control the law and order of the country. The Police system slowly evolved under the British administration.
  • When the British took control over Bengal it was under the police system of Mughals in \(1765\). It had 1. Faujdars – incharge of rural districts.
    2. Kotwals – in charge of towns.
  • The control of the Police system was under the Xamindars, where they exerted financial and administrative control over them.
The Cornwallis System of Policing:
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Cornwallis with the Police force
  • Lord Cornwallis brought changes to the existing police system to bring the law and order under control. The crime rates were blowing too high proportions when Cornwallis took charge.
  • He replaced British Magistrates in the place of Faujdars and the Xamindars were left as such. He also introduced a regular force of police in 1791.
  • While the crime rates were not brought under control and the Xamindars started misusing their powers which forced Cornwallis to alter the rules.
  • He stripped Xamindars of their powers and brought a new system of “Thanas or units of police jurisdiction” and placed it under Darogas who was appointed by British Magistrates.
  • The Daroga system which was extended to Madras in 1802, was later abolished in 1812 after the placing of police forces under the control of the District who became the ultimate controller of the Police forces.  
Judiciary under British
The Judicial system under the British underwent immense changes which brought a new system of the judiciary from where most practices were adopted by the following powers in future.
Warren Hastings period: (1772 – 1785)
  • The Governor-general of Bengal Warren Hastings introduced changes under his regime in the field of Judiciary, where he established two courts.
    1. Diwani Adalat -  for dealing with civil disputes.
    2. Faujdari Adalat – for dealing with criminal disputes.
  • Under the Regulating Act of 1773, a new Supreme Court was established in Bengal during his regime, which had both appellate and Original Jurisdiction.
  • During later periods Supreme Courts were established in both Madras and Bombay presidencies during \(1801 \)and \(1823 \)respectively.
William Bentick Period:
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William Bentick
  • His period witnessed new avenues in the field of Judiciary, where he abolished the circuit courts all over the country.
  • \(New Law commission in 1835 \)was established under Macaulay to codify the laws which were used to rule the country.
  • Later the Indian high court’s act of \(1861 \)paved the way for the establishment of High courts in Madras, Bombay and Calcutta which replaced the already existing Supreme courts in these places.