Medieval Period
The medieval period commonly denotes the period after \(11th century AD\). During this period, the European countries increased their overseas trade by discovering new routes to Asian countries like India, China etc. This trade played a crucial role in the revival of European towns and cities after a period of low development.
In the early medieval period, the rate of urbanisation was slow due to unstable political conditions. Medieval urban centres were surrounded by agricultural lands.
At the end of the \(13th century\), Paris, London, Geneva, Milan and Venice were the important cities found in Europe.
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Modern Period
The modern period starts from the 17th century. It marks the third phase of development in urbanisation. The industrial revolution in the 19th century fueled the growth of towns and cities. With more land and mineral wealth found in North America, more and more Europeans started settling there in an urban civilisation, which gave birth to a large number of new towns in North America and the Soviet Union.
The modern means of transport and communication speeded up the process of urbanisation. The development of new trade routes during the 19th century had strengthened the trade centres and urban areas.
The latest development in urbanisation was noticed in the continent of Africa. Before 1930, Africa had towns only on its coasts, but now it has over 50 towns with a population exceeding 1,00,000. Major cities in Africa are Cairo, Addis Abba, Nairobi, Mombasa, Bulawayo, Logos, Duala, Abidian, Accra, Leopoldville, Natal, Luanda, Cape Town, Pretoria etc. Thus, in the modern age, accelerating urbanisation is resulting in a redistribution of the population throughout the world.