Theory:

Weather
Weather is a day to day phenomenon that describes the condition of the atmosphere of a particular place.
It might be sunny, hot, windy or cloudy, raining or snowing. Weather also speaks about sunshine, temperature, amount of cloud cover, wind & fog conditions, air pressure, humidity, precipitation and other elements. It refers to short durations like a day, a week, a month, or litter longer than that. Weather is dynamic and keeps on changing from time to time in a day or a period of a year.
 
As we mentioned earlier, weather changes from time to time, in a particular place, it may be a sunny morning with a clear sky, but on the same day, in the evening, there might be a heavy downpour. Similarly, a place may have cool winter and hot summer.
 
We often hear people using weather and climate interchangeably. But it is incorrect because they both are different. Weather is for a short duration, and it varies for a brief time. But the climate of a place or a region is for a very long time.
Climate
Climate is the long-term pattern of weather in a particular region. A region's weather patterns, usually tracked for at least 30 years, are considered its climate.
The elements associated with weather and climate are the same. Unlike the weather, climate does not change often. Climate is derived from the Greek word "Klimo" which means "Inclination".
 
Several parts of the world have different climates. Regions of tropical wet climate experiences hot and rainy nearly every day. Whereas in the polar region, the climate is cold and snow-covered most of the year. Between the freezing poles and the steamy tropics, many other climates contribute to Earth's biodiversity and geologic heritage.
climate.jpg

We know that the shape of the Earth is spherical or geoid and also tilted on its axis. So, the fall of the sun's rays on the Earth's surface is uneven. Sun rays received in the Polar regions are inclined; hence there is little or no sunlight. Because of this, there are extreme cold winters in these regions.

The Equator receives vertical sun’s rays. Hence the climate is very hot, with almost no winters. The difference in temperature creates ocean and air currents. Warm air rises and creates more space for air beneath, while cool air settles down.
The scientific study of weather is called Meteorology, and the scientific study of climate is called Climatology.