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The Mesolithic Period or the Middle Age:
The Mesolithic or the Middle stone age period witnessed the use of highly polished stone tools and crafted pointers used for various purposes like hunting and gathering.
Mesolithic cave art
This period emerged after the Ice age, where the world was under dramatic climate change, making these people a nomadic community. They started wandering from high lands to lowlands and the vice-versa according to the climatic conditions.
The emergence of the new Lithic Technology – Microlithic:
  • This Mesolithic period saw the emergence of new technology made by the people called Microlithic Technology, where people started using small tools.
  • These Microlithic tools have two special attributes which were absent from the tools found in earlier periods. They had a proper geometric shape and were small in size.
Microliths: These are smaller tools, mostly less than \(5\)\(cm\), fixed on top of wooden sticks and used for various purposes.
The Microliths
The people employed various geometric tools like Triangles, Trapesers etc., to make these Microliths..
The New Beginning called “Neolithic”:
This period revolutionised the life of people, which allowed them to enter into a settled lifestyle by shedding their nomadic way of life. People who were lived earlier in caves and holes under the ground to protect themselves from nature and the animals started building houses during this period.
Neolithic Settlements
The Neolithic period also marked the advent of various civilisations that emerged across different parts of the world. Some of the evidence of Neolithic settlements around the world are listed below:
1. Mesopotamia or modern-day Iraq
2. Indus valley in India
3. Gangetic Plains of India
4. Egyptian Plains
5. China valley
The Birth of Agriculture:
The most important feature of the Neolithic period was the practice of agriculture adopted by the people. After building mud walls using dried clay pieces, they slowly started to settle along the banks of the river.
Neolithic Agriculture

The practice of agriculture gradually allowed them to domesticate animals used for agriculture and their consumption. These developments began during the timeframe of \(10000\)\(BC\)  – \(5000\)\(BC\).
Fertile Crescent Region: This region witnessed the first settled agricultural communities found in Mediterranean and Middle East areas, which are roughly crescent-shaped. This area includes countries like Mesopotamia, Egypt, Armenia and Israel-Palestine region.
Other major developments of this Period:Cultivation of plants and crops which enabled food production.
1. Usage of polished tools with new grinding techniques.
2. The emergence of village clusters happened during this period.