The History of Migration:
Migration is a common trait among living beings; even animals and birds migrate from one place to another to escape climate harshness and its predators.
Migration is defined as the “process of movement from one country, locality or place to the better locality”. The process of Migration is triggered for various reasons; it can be natural or man-made.
Migration: The English word Migration is derived from the Latin Word "Migrare" meaning "to move from one place to another”.
The process of Migration began during the ancient period as the earliest humans led a life of nomads as they moved from one place to another in search of food and water.
The “Out of Africa Theory”:
The first instance of Migration was seen in the African Continent, where the ancient Homo Sapiens moved from Africa to Eurasia some \(2,00,000\)years ago. This incident was supported by the “Out of Africa Theory”.
Ancient Migratory Route of Early Human
Homo Sapiens moved from Africa to Eurasia and replaced Neanderthals of Eurasia. Later migration towards South-East Asia and Australia paved the way for the evolution of Civilisation.
The reasons for their migration are likely due to lack of food and water, hostile climatic conditions, external environment factors.
The Migration Concept:
The population of a place is altered through three factors: “Birth rate, Death rate and Migration”. Of these events, birth and death are calculated properly, while migration cannot be measured using a parameter.
Migration is a sudden phenomenon where a particular place attracts a huge chunk of people all of a sudden which alters the demography and social-economic structure of an area, which leads to disputes.
The Census taken in India laid down two methods to calculate the influx migration they are:
Category of migrants