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Theory:

     As he walked beside the canal, he noticed how the rains had swollen the waters, and how they beat against the side of the dike, and he thought of his father’s gates.
 
     “I am glad they are so strong,” he said to himself. “If they gave way what would become of us? These pretty fields would be covered with water. Father always calls them the `angry waters.´ I suppose he thinks they are angry at him for keeping them out so long.”
Explanation:
 
As Peter had walked near the canal, he noticed how the recent rain had increased the water density and so how they beat against the side of the dike more than usual times. At that time, he was reminded of his father who was appointed to look after the sluice gates near dikes. Sluices are bridges that connect the dikes on both sides and allow people to cross from one to the other.  
 
Peter said to himself that he was glad that the powerful dikes had prevented sea water from entering the country. Also, he reasoned to himself that if those dikes had let the water in, things must had been far worse for those lovely fields to be flooded.
 
His father referred to it as "angry waters" that were slamming on the dikes and attempting to enter the land. Peter, too, felt as if the sea water was enraged with his father, who had blocked the waters from coming into the land for a long time as a sluice gatekeeper.
 
The preceding paragraphs provide ample insight into how even children in Holland knew the value of dikes. Moreover, though Peter appears to be having fun, his thoughts suggest that he is a responsible citizen and his approach toward the defence of his country is admirable.
 
Meaning of difficult words:
  
S. No.
Words
Meaning
1.
Beside Next to somebody/something
2.
FieldAn area of grass or a land where crops grow
Reference:
State Council of Educational Research and Training (2018). English Standard-10. The Little Hero of Holland- Mary Mapes Dodge (pp. 183-185). Published by the Tamil Nadu Textbook and Educational Services Corporation