Theory:

Separation of solids:
 
This process involves,
  1. Handpicking
  2. Sieving
  3. Winnowing
  4. Threshing
  5. Magnetic separation
Handpicking:
If the impurities are visible, they are able to pick and separate by hand. This process is called handpicking.
Example: Separating stones from rice
 
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Sieving:
Sieving is the process of separating different sizes of solid particles.
Example: Separating sand from gravel
 
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Winnowing:
The process of separation of lighter and heavier components of a mixture by air is called winnowing.
Example: Removing of husk from rice and wheat
 
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Threshing:
The separation of grains from their stalks by beating them very hard is called threshing.
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Magnetic separation:
A magnetic separator is a device, which uses the magnet to separate the substances with magnetic properties from non-magnetic substances. The substance that is attracted to the magnet is called magnetic. This process is called magnetic separation.
Examples of magnetic substances are iron, gold and aluminium.
 
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Sometimes combination methods are required to complete separation. For example, the separation of a mixture of sand and salt in the water that involves several steps are listed below:
  • Sedimentation
  • Decantation
  • Filtration
  • Evaporation
  • Condensation
Evaporation: The process of converting liquid into vapour.
 
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Condensation: This is the reverse process of vaporization, i.e., vapour into liquid.
 
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