Theory:

Political parties:
Political parties are the voluntary associations of individuals with a broad ideological identity who agree on some policies and formulate an agenda and programme for society.  For any political party to implement their policies, they have to win the people's support. So the election is conducted to choose the political party which has the peoples support.
 
Any political party has three basic components:
  • The leader 
  • The active members
  • The followers
Importance of political parties:
  • Political parties are the backbone of democracy.
  • Political parties reflect public opinion.
  • They become essential elements in forming a government.
  • Political parties serve as intermediaries between citizens and policymakers.
A party is recognized if
  • The party has been involved in political activity for 5 years.
  • Its candidates secure at least 6 percent of total votes in the last general election.
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Characteristics of Political Parties
 
Political parties must;
  • Consist of a group of persons of common goals and shared values.
  • Have its own ideology and programme.
  • Capture power only by constitutional means.
  • Endeavour to promote the national interest and national welfare.