In India, the Governor is the Head of the State who is appointed by the President of India for a term of five years. He/She is the constitutional Head of a State and may be transferred to another State or his/her term may be extended or he/she may be relieved from office before the completion of his/her term by the President. But the State Government cannot remove the Governor from his/her post.
Qualification to become a Governor
- must be a citizen of India,
- must be at least 35 years old,
- should not hold any office of profit during the tenure.
At the time of appointment of a Governor, the President will be acting as per the advice of the Union Cabinet. That particular State Government also will be consulted. In general, a person is not appointed as Governor in his/her own State.
Powers and functions
- He / She is the Chief Executive in a State who is vested the entire executive powers of the State. He /She appoints the Chief Minister and Council of Ministers.
- He / She appoints important posts such as the Advocate General, Chairman and members of the State Public Service Commission etc.
- He / She is the Chancellor of State Universities
- Based on the Governor’s report, the President can impose emergency under Article 356.
- He / She has the right to summon and prorogue the State Legislature.
- He can dissolve the Legislative Assembly.
- Money bills can be introduced only with the recommendations of the Governor.
- He / She may proclaim ordinances when the Legislative Assembly or both the houses of the legislature (when there are two houses) are not in session.
- He can nominate a member from Anglo-India Community.
- He / She can nominate 1/6 members of the Legislature council.
- Social Service and Co-operative Movement may also be nominated by the Governor.
- The Governor should give his/her approval for the annual budget of the State Government when it is laid before the legislature.
- All the bills including money bills passed in the legislature must be approved by the Governor and the Contingency fund of the State is also approved by the Governor.
Position of the Governor
Even though the position of the Governor is compared to the President of India as a nominal executive, he/she is not always a nominal executive. On some occasions, he/she can exercise his/her powers in the real sense. In general, he/she is acting as an agent of the Central Government. So the Governor is responsible to maintain a smooth relationship between the State and Central Government.
The Governor may give advice to the Ministers at the time of difficulties. The Governor takes autonomous decisions while exercising discretionary powers. He may gather information from the Council of Ministers on matters related to various functions of the Government.